Avian Disease

A Bane for Hawai’i’s Forest Birds

Hawai’i’s native forest birds evolved in isolation over millions of years. This led to one of the most spectacular examples of adaptive radiation the ornithological world has ever seen. Hawai’i’s native birds evolved in the absence of many of the threats that are now present on the islands. The evolutionary processes that shaped Hawai’i’s avifauna left it extremely vulnerable to disease. With no evolutionarily acquired defenses, two diseases, Avian Malaria and Avian Pox, have spread and are implicated in the extinctions, range contractions and declines of many native Hawaiian forest birds.

It is unclear when or how these diseases first appeared on the islands. It is thought they were first introduced with the importation of non-native bird species, but it may also be that they were present on the islands at a low level with migratory seabirds, shorebirds and waterfowl. However, without an effective vector, these diseases did not pose a threat to Hawai’i’s native forest birds. That all changed with the relatively recent introduction of mosquitoes.

Mosquitoes and the Hawaiian Islands

Before humans arrived on the islands, there were no mosquitoes or any other biting or blood sucking insects. By the mid 1800’s however, mosquitoes were firmly established throughout the archipelago introduced inadvertently through human activities. Of these, the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus) is the greatest threat to Hawaiian birds. Introduced in 1826, it is the primary vector of Avian Malaria and Avian Pox, and is implicated in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds.

Most of Maui’s native forest birds exist where mosquitoes do not; high elevation, northeastern slopes of HaleakalA above ~4500 feet (the “mosquito line”). This is because mosquitoes cannot survive the cool climate at these altitudes and the parasite (Avian Malaria) cannot develop in its vector.

Kiwikiu and ‘Akohekohe once occurred throughout low and mid-elevation forests on Maui. They are now extirpated from these habitats and restricted to just a tiny fraction of their historic ranges due to these mosquito-vectored diseases. Although a large amount of suitable habitat still exists below the “mosquito line” it has been rendered almost completely uninhabitable to native birds. Those that wander below this line will most likely become infected and die. With the looming threat of climate change and projected temperature increases, it is likely that the mosquito line will move to higher elevations, further constricting the already limited range of Maui’s native forest birds.

Avian Pox (Avipox-virus sp.):

Avian Pox Virus was first documented in forest birds in 1902. Mosquitoes spread this viral parasite, but direct contact between infected birds, contaminated surfaces and contaminated food and water also spread the disease. Symptoms include swollen, often bloody tumor-like lesions on unfeathered parts of a bird’s body, such as the feet, legs, eyes, and base of the bill. The virus also causes lesions in the mouth, trachea, esophagus and lungs. Lesions often cause birds to have difficulty with eating, finding food, and flying. Some may even loose limbs. Infected individuals who have not succumbed to the disease may be weak and emaciated making them susceptible to depredation.

Avian Malaria (Plasmodium relictum):

Avian Malaria was first detected in Hawai’i in the 1940s and is caused by the unicellular microorganism, Plasmodium relictum. It is spread by mosquitoes. The disease causes birds’ red blood cells to rupture, causing low blood oxygen level. Hawaiian honeycreepers, with no immunity to the disease, rapidly become anemic and lethargic and die. The disease also causes enlargement of the liver and spleen.

Disease Control and the Future

Both diseases are very difficult to manage. There presently is no feasible treatment or vaccines to control the diseases. The most important disease control methods currently are to limit mosquito populations, which can be difficult. Control programs need to be innovative, cost-effective, environmentally safe, and sustainable.

Aside from working on ways to directly control disease and/or mosquitoes, maintaining and protecting high-elevation disease-free habitats is of critical importance. The biggest threat to these refugia may be climate change. Restoring deforested, high elevation lands is extremely important.

There is now evidence that Hawai’i ‘Amakihis are evolving disease resistance and/or tolerance. This species is now being found in low elevation areas that have mosquitoes and disease. These low-elevation forests may serve as important grounds for coevolution of native birds with disease. Therefore, the protection of native forests from sea-level to tree line is extremely important for the future survival of native birds. MFBRP has been working with partners on a project about disease resistance in ‘Amakihi.

The continued viability of our native forest birds depends on preservation of their habitat, vector eradication, public outreach and education, vigilance in anticipation of future diseases or population declines, continued research on the native birds and their habitat, and continued laboratory research into innovative disease control methods.

Vector Control

The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife office and the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resource’s Division of Forestry and Wildlife have been working with other conservation partners to understand and apply novel mosquito control techniques in Hawaii to help maintain and expand dwindling populations of Hawaii’s native forest birds.  These forest birds are severely threatened by avian malaria, a disease primarily vectored by the non-native mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.   Working with various partners, the Hawaii Team has reviewed emerging vector control techniques/technologies that can be applied at a landscape scale.   The Hawaii Teams current focus is the development of a mass rearing pipeline for C. quinquefasciatus infected with Wolbachia, a bacterium known to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (i.e. sterility after mating).  Releases of these mass reared mosquitoes will then be used to reduce populations of wild C. quinquefasciatus in forest bird refugia using an integrated pest management approach with emphasis on the Insect Incompatibility Technique (ITT Wolbachia).  Although capacity will be developed for the mass rearing and release of Wolbachia infected C. quinquefasciatus, management can be modified easily to incorporate more efficient technologies for mass rearing and release as they are developed and approved to address other non-native mosquito species known to be vectors of public health diseases in Hawaii.

In 2016, the management approach was further refined and reviewed at multiple workshops, including one co-organized by the Hawaii Team and the Hawaii Exemplary State Foundation. This workshop was convened in order to represent and review the technologies as well as develop collaborations with governmental and non-governmental organizations within and outside of Hawaii.  The outcome of the workshop further reinforced the necessity and feasibility of C. quinquefaciatus control in Hawaii, as well as the control of other mosquito species (workshop report found at: https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/hisc/files/2017/02/Report-on-Mosquito-Free-Workshop-v42-1.pdf).  Following this workshop in early 2017, the Hawaii Invasive Species Council, an inter-departmental collaboration of all of Hawaii’s government state agencies passed resolution 17-2 “Supporting Evaluation and Implementation of Technologies for Landscape-Scale Control of Mosquitoes, With a Focus On Mitigating Both Human and Wildlife Health Risks).

The Hawaii Team continues to partner and collaborate with various government and non-governmental institutions, which include: the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, the Hawaii Department of Health, the Hawaii Exemplary State Foundation, the American Bird Conservancy, Revive and Restore, Verily, the Nature Conservancy, the Hawaii Conservation Alliance, the Hawaii Invasive Species Council, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Defense, the US National Park Service, and the US Geological Service.

This group is currently seeking funding to assess Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Hawaii strains of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. albopictus by the research teams.  The Hawaii strains of these species will then be introgressed with the various lab strains to develop Hawaii specific Wolbachia infected strains of the species.   Additionally, funding will be used for a DLNR planner position that will help to expedite work in Hawaii.

State of Hawai’i Department of Health has some great resources about limiting mosquito habitat in your backyard.

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