Mounce HL, Leonard DL, Farmer CA, Swinnerton KJ, Groombridge JJ. Using Population Viability Analysis to Guide Management Strategies for Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) Recovery.
Berthold LK, Mounce HL. Breeding biology notes from the field: an update on Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys).
Garvin JC, Mounce HL, Becker CD, Leonard DL. Using discriminant function analysis to accurately sex Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana).
Ganaden, S. Fight or Flight. Flux Hawai’i. Summer 2016.
Warren CC, Motyka PJ, Mounce HL. 2015. Home range sizes of two Hawaiian honeycreepers: implications for proposed translocation efforts. Journal of Field Ornithology 86(4):305–316.
Davies, R. Growth Industry. Hana Hou Magaine of Hawaiian Airlines. October/November 2015.
Jarvis B. How Scientists are Racing to Save a Rare Hawaiian Bird from Extinction. Audubon Magazine. September-October 2015.
Steutermann-Rogers K. Chasing Kiwikiu. Hawai’i Magazine. 31 Aug. 2015.
MFBRP Workplan 2015-2016. This annual planning document outlines our research and management strategies.
Mounce HL, Raisin C, Leonard DL, Wickenden H, Swinnerton KJ, Groombridge JJ. 2015. Spatial genetic architecture of the critically-endangered Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys): management considerations for reintroduction strategies. Conservation Genetics Volume 16, Issue 1: Page 71-84. The final publication is available at link.springer.com
Peck RW, Banko PC, Cappadonna J, Steele C, Leonard DL, Mounce HL, Becker CD, Swinnerton KJ. 2015. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana). Hawai’i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai’i at Hilo. Technical Report HCSU-059.
Mounce HL, Iknayan KJ, Leonard DL, Swinnerton KJ, and Groombridge JJ. 2014. Management implications derived from long term re-sight data: annual survival of the Maui Parrotbill Pseudonestor xanthophrys. Bird Conservation International 24:316-326.
MFBRP Workplan 2014-2015. This annual planning document outlines our research and management strategies.
Jirinec V, Rutt CL, Kutylowski JA, Wang AX, Kohley CR, Wheeler SR, Mounce HL, Jeffrey J. 2013. A Nest in Koa (Acacia koa) Successfully Fledged Two ‘Akiapōlā‘au (Hemignathus munroi).’Elepaio 73(5).
MFBRP Work Plan 2013-2014. This annual planning document outlines our research and management strategies.
Mounce HL, Leonard DL, Swinnerton KJ, Becker CD, Berthold LK, Iknayan KJ, Groombridge JJ. 2013. Determining productivity of Maui Parrotbills, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper. Journal of Field Ornithology 84(1):32-39.
Brinck KW, Camp RJ, Gorresen PM, Leonard DL, Mounce HL, Iknayan KJ, Paxton EH. 2012. 2011 Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) and Maui Alauahio abundance estimates and the effect of sampling effort on power to detect a trend. Hawai’i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai’i at Hilo. Technical Report HCSU-035.
Vetter JP, Swinnerton KJ, VanderWerf EA, Garvin JC, Mounce HL, Breniser HE, Leonard DL, Fretz JS. 2012. Survival estimates for two Hawaiian honeycreepers. Pacific Science 66(3):299-309.
MFBRP Work Plan 2012-2013. This annual planning document outlines our research and managment strategies.
Mounce HL, Leonard DL. 2012. Habitat restoration aiding the recovery of the Maui Parrotbill. Biodiversity Science 6.
Mounce HL. 2012. Help Save the Maui Parrotbill. Winging It 24(3).
Becker CD, Mounce HL, Rassmussen TA, Rauch-Sasseen A, Swinnerton KJ, Leonard DL. 2010. Nest success and parental investment in endangered Maui parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) with implications for recovery. Endangered Species Research. N 278: 189-194.
Becker CD, Massey G, Groombridge JJ, Hammond R. 2010. Moving ‘I’iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as a Surrogate for Future Translocations of Endangered ‘Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei). Technical Report #172.
MFBRP Work Plan 2010. This annual planning document outlines our research and management strategies.
Sparklin BD, Malcolm TR, Brosius CN, and Vetter JP. 2010. Effects of Rattus spp. Control Measure and Nesting Substrate on Nest Depredation, East Maui, Hawai’i. Proc. 24th Vertebr. Pest Conf. University of California, Davis. 18-22.
Becker CD, Berthold LK, Iknayan KJ, Li W. 2009. Density of Maui Parrotbill in Waikamoi Preserve West of Ko’olau Gap. MFBRP Partnership Communication.
Mounce HL. 2008. What threat do native avian predators pose to Hawaiian honeycreepers? Two cases of predation by pueo (Asio flammeus sandwinchensis). ‘Elepaio 68(3): 19-20.
Malcolm TR, Swinnerton KJ, Groombridge JJ, Sparklin BD, Brosius CN, Vetter JP, Foster JT. 2008. Ground-based rodent control in a remote Hawaiian rainforest on Maui. Pacific Conservation Biology 14: 206-214.
Mounce HL, Duvall F, Swinnerton KJ. 2007. Poli Poli fire demonstrates vulnerability of Maui ‘Alauahio. ‘Elepaio 67(9): 67-69.
Warren CC, Mounce HL. 2015. Planning for Kiwikiu reintroduction: Habitat restoration in Nakula Natural Area Reserve, Maui. Presentation. Maui Weed Forum. Kahului, HI.
Warren CC, Mounce HL, Farmer C, Vetter JP, Berthold LK, Landon P, Fretz S. 2015. Planning for Kiwikiu reintroduction: Habitat restoration in Nakula Natural Area Reserve, Maui. Presentation. Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC) Conference, Honolulu, HI.
Mounce HL, Warren CC, Farmer C, Vetter JP, Berthold LK, Landon P, Fretz S. 2015. Planning for Kiwikiu reintroduction: Habitat restoration in Nakula Natural Area Reserve, Maui. Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference, Hilo, HI. View presentation here.
Berthold LK, Warren CC, Mounce HL, Vetter JP. 2015. Leeward East Maui Forest Bird Community: Surveys in Nakula Natural Area Reserve. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference, Hilo, HI.
Wang AX. 2015. Movement patterns of adult and juvenile ‘Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei). Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference, Hilo, HI. View presentation here.
Wang AX. 2014. The presence of an ecological trap in the juvenile dispersal of the ‘Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), a population limiting life stage? Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference, Honolulu, HI.
Warren CC, Mounce HL. 2014. Home-range patterns of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, Kiwikiu (Psuedonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroeomyza montana). Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference, Honolulu, HI.
Warren CC, Mounce HL. 2014. Home-range patterns of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, Kiwikiu (Psuedonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroeomyza montana). Presentation. Island Biology Conference, Honolulu, HI.
Mounce HL, Raisin C, Leonard DL, Groombridge JJ. 2012. Contemporary Genetic Diversity for the Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys). Poster Presentation. NAOC-V Conference.
Berthold LK, Mounce HL, Motyka PJ, Leonard DL. 2012. Experiments with Developing and Using Supplemental Feeders for Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill; Psuedonestor xanthophrys): Potentials for translocation efforts and population productivity levels. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Motyka PJ, Mounce HL, Leonard DL, Groombridge JJ. 2012. Comparing mtDNA diversity in the Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and the Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana). Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Mounce HL, Kohley CR, Rutt C, Leonard DL. 2012. Maui’s Protected Areas Shelter Long-lived Hawaiian Honeycreepers. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Mounce HL, Raisin C, Leonard DL, Groombridge JJ. 2012. Contemporary Genetic Diversity for the Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys). Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Berthold LK, Mounce HL, Leonard DL, Iknayan KJ, Becker CD, Swinnerton KJ, Groombridge JJ. 2011. Kiwikiu productivity: nest survival and annual reproductive success. Presentation. Presentation. The Wildlife Society Conference.
Mounce HL, Iknayan KJ, Berthold LK, Leonard DL. 2011. Kiwikiu productivity: Nest survival and annual reproductive success in the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, Maui, Hawaii. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Berthold LK, Becker CD, Mounce HL, Iknayan KJ. 2010. Effect of Rodent Reduction on Numbers of Forest Birds in a Hawaiian Rainforest. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Iknayan KJ, Mounce HL, Becker CD. August 2010. Home Range Patterns of Maui ‘Alauahio and Maui Parrotbill. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Becker CD, Mounce HL, Butler A, Ha J, Leonard DL. August 2010. Messages from Population Models: Implications for Recovery of Endangered Maui Parrotbill. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Becker CD, Mounce HL, Leonard DL. August 2010. Establishing a Second Population of Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). Presentation. American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU) Conference.
Mounce HL, Becker CD, Rassmussen TA, Rauch-Sasseen A, Swinnerton KJ, Leonard DL. February 2009. Parental Investment at the Nest in Wild Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthrophrys): Implications for Captive Propagation and Recovery. Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Mounce HL, Garvin JC, Wells CP, DuBay SG, Becker CD, Leonard DL. July 2009. Using Discriminant Function Analysis to Accurately Sex Maui ‘Alauahio. Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Hammond RL, Becker CD, Li WW, Leonard DL. July 2009. Use of Spacial Analysis to evaluate the effect of climate change on numbers of Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). Poster Presentation. Hawai’i Conservation Conference.
Garvin JC, Vetter JP, Mounce HL, VanderWerf EA, Swinnerton KJ, Breniser HE, Becker CD, Leonard DL. 2008. Survival estimates of the endangered Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthrophrys) and the Maui ‘Alauahio (Paroreomyza montana). Poster Presentation AOU Conference Portland, OR.
MFBRP creates and publishes these newsletters bi-annually each year. They summarize our projects, research, events, and crew. We also feature special articles about various conservation topics and our partners. If you have a topic that you are interested in MFBRP covering, feel free to email suggestions to info AT mauiforestbirds.org. Enjoy!
Informative articles that have been specifically written for MFBRP by volunteers and professional freelance writers.
Seidl, Christa. 2014. “Wildfire on Leeward Maui: A Hot Conservation Threat.” University of Hawai’i Maui College. Poster Presentation. Inspired by the fencing of Nakula Natural Area Reserve and MFBRP’s Kiwikiu reintroduction plans, Christa Seidl’s poster presents a GIS analysis of the history of wildfire and future fire threats for leeward East Maui, considering a number of environmental factors, past fires, fuel loads, land use, municipal facilities, and land cover. In particular, the report focuses on the risk past fires have posed to “valuable lands” which are defined as the state’s reserves and parks such as Nakula NAR, and Hawaiian Homelands. The resulting maps are meant to provide land managers, Maui county, and other interested parties with valuable information to better protect Maui’s endangered species and natural resources. About the author: Christa Seidl worked for MFBRP as an AmeriCorps intern for two years. She did the above research for a GIS course through the University of Hawai’i-Maui College.
Burnett, Keith. 2015. “Potential Kiwikiu Habitat on Leeward Haleakalā.” University of Hawai’i- Maui College. Poster Presentation. About the author: Keith Burnett worked for MFBRP as a research assistant in 2013. He did this poster for a GIS course through the University of Hawai’i-Maui College.
Smith, Michelle. 2015. “Range of Educational Outreach Obtained by Conservation Organizations. University of Hawai’i-Maui College. Poster Presentation. About the author: Michelle Smith worked for the Maui Bird Conservation Center, helping to breed endangered birds in captivity. She is now working on GIS projects after receiving her GIS certificate through the UH-Maui College course.
Hunt, Gemma. Maui’s Changing Landscape and Ecosystems. Freelance article. All opinions and facts in this article were researched and written by Gemma Hunt.
The landscape of Maui is under threat. This is a statement that could easily describe any landscape in the world in the 21st century. Each will have its own particular story, which would describe how it is threatened from a complex mix of problems brought about by natural changes as well as man’s exploitation. All we can do is make a commitment to conserve what is good, to repair damaged ecosystems, and to live more in harmony with the land so that it remains productive and healthy. This is the philosophy behind the long range Maui Island Plan, drawn up by the County of Maui Planning Department after five years of consultation with the island’s residents. Its aim was to find out what the people needed and wanted, their fears, their dreams and how these could be incorporated into a general policy plan, looking ahead to the year 2030. 
When considering the Maui Island Plan, the main concern of most Maui residents is that the island’s characteristic mix of small towns and open countryside is maintained, while also ensuring that quality of life in the larger urban areas does not suffer. These two goals might appear to conflict with one another. However, for example, the town of Kihei has grown rapidly since 2007. To ignore the fact would be unrealistic. Factoring in the needs of urban areas in any environmental policy should enable a proper balance to be achieved, although the fight for recognition of Kihei-Makena’s natural gulches and forest areas as “sensitive lands” and protection of the Palauea and Kama’ole dryland forests has shown how valuable areas of natural landscape can be overlooked in any development plan. 
Traditional land use
Prior to the first contact between Hawaiians and Europeans, the Hawaiian culture had a distinctive system of land use that did not include private ownership. Land was divided into long sections or ahupua’a, which ran from the sea to the mountains, each division ensuring that no single piece of land was better or worse for cultivation than the next. The size of each ahupua’a varied, with larger ahupua’a compensating for relative lack of natural resources. These were subdivided for cultivation by individual families, but in harmony with the concept of the self-sustaining parcel of land, which put into practice the native Hawaiians’ emphasis on the interrelationship between land, the elements, man, nature and the seasons. 
European influence was destructive, bringing infectious diseases that severely depleted the native population, new ideas about land ownership, and increasing demands on the island’s resources. In the early 19th century, the sandalwood trade put pressure on the natural forests and diverted many people from food production. This trade ceased when all the sandalwood trees had been cut down. The demand to take on supplies by increasing numbers of ships visiting the islands further depleted native food stocks, which resulted in the famine of 1810. The result of all these pressures was that within fifty years of the first European landing on Hawai’i, its culture, population and landscape had been irrevocably damaged. 
Pressures on ecosystems
This process continued with European settlement and the introduction of new crops and livestock that put further pressure on the land and native species. Through necessity, in this small island environment, the native organic agriculture was perfectly suited to the environment, sustainably exploiting a huge variety of plant species for both food and medicine, and adapting methods of cultivation for different habitats, altitude and weather conditions.
In contrast, European and later U.S. influences brought land clearances and cash crop monocultures. This philosophy of exploitation that is insensitive to the natural environment continues today with the unregulated, rapid increase in the use of genetically engineered (GE) crops.  All GE plantings are necessarily experimental. They threaten the stability of Maui’s agricultural economy and could irreversibly damage the ecosystem in unpredictable ways. Because they are herbicide-resistant, GE crops promote the indiscriminate use of herbicides, which damage the fertility of the soil, poison wildlife and get into the drinking water. Maui’s groundwater is already significantly contaminated in some areas where conventional pineapple growers have used pesticides indiscriminately, and planting GE crops would only exacerbate the problem. Experimental GE crops have also been used to test whether they can effectively deliver pharmaceuticals through food products.  Although U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations do not permit foods adulterated with potentially harmful pharmaceutical proteins, there is still a risk of pharmaceutical contamination of the land and water sources in Maui by unregulated commercial agricultural companies using GE crops. 
The natural volcanic landscapes of Maui, the beaches, forests and waterfalls, are spectacularly beautiful. Look beyond the tourist views and you’ll find a landscape that is under pressure on all sides, sometimes with subtle effects caused by changes in average rainfall and lowering groundwater that can be seen only after years of observation, or more obviously with the invasion of alien plant and animal species, which can have a devastating effect on native species.  Invasive alien species can affect commercial exploitation of natural resources, such as the Maui black coral fishery, which was sustainably exploited up until the mid-1970s, but is now in danger of becoming unsustainable for several reasons: the pressure of over-harvesting, particularly on small colonies of the two black coral species, the growth in popularity of black coral jewelry, and the invasion of the alien Carijoa riisi overgrowing the black coral’s habitat. 
Three quarters of US extinct birds and plants lived on the Hawaiian Islands. The distortion of ecosystems when dominated by alien invaders threatens the habitats of our surviving indigenous species. Vital efforts to halt this process by organizations such as the Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project (MFBRP), the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) and the Hawaiian Invasive Species Council (HISC), which provides state government leadership, has ensured that imminent threats can be dealt with quickly, although the challenge remains: new species arrive on the islands almost daily, and the threat to Hawaii’s delicate ecosystems is constant. 
Hawaii Heritage Program 1991. Ecosystem loss in Hawaii: maps depicting native ecosystems before and after 1500 years of human habitation. Unpublished map series for Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, and Kauai. The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, Honolulu.
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